Temperature - Detailed explanation, Heat vs Temperature, FAQs (2023)

Temperature refers to the heat or coldness of a body. More specifically, it is the way to determine the kinetic energy of particles within an object. Faster movement of particles; more the temperature and vice versa.

Temperature plays an important role in almost all areas of our daily life and in all scientific disciplines, from physics to geology.

To determine how hot an iron rod is, physicists measure temperature, to be precise, rather than mentioning how hot or cold the rod is.

Define temperature

Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object. As the temperature increases, the movement of these particles also increases.

The temperature is measured with a thermometer or calorimeter. In other words, temperature determines the internal energy within a given system.

Relationship between temperature and kinetic energy

Kinetic energy is the energy that a body possesses due to its movement. We see a range of kinetic energies in molecules because not all molecules move at the same speed. When a substance absorbs heat, the particles move faster, increasing the average kinetic energy and therefore the temperature.
As stated in the kinetic-molecular theory, the temperature of a substance depends on the average kinetic energy of the particles of that substance. When a substance is heated, some of the absorbed energy is stored in the particles, while some of the energy increases the motion of the particles. This is registered as an increase in the temperature of the substance.

Solids, liquids and gases all have a temperature. The particles in a solid do not move, but they do have oscillatory motion. Temperature increases when molecules vibrate faster. The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which vibrational motion overcomes the attractive forces that hold the molecules in a fixed formation.
Continue reading:Kinetic theory of gases

heat versus temperature

It is important to understand that heat and temperature are not the same thing. Although the two concepts are related, they mean different things.
Heat describes the transfer of thermal energy between molecules within a system and is measured in joules. An object can gain or lose heat, but it cannot have heat. Heat is not a property of an object or system, but a measure of change.
Temperature describes the average kinetic energy of molecules within a material or system and is measured in Celsius (°C), Kelvin (K) and Fahrenheit (°F).
In conclusion, we can say that heat is a transfer of thermal energy caused by a temperature difference between molecules.

temperature measurement

Because molecules are tiny particles, we have to use indirect methods to measure the kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance. When heat is added to the substance, the molecules move faster. This increased movement causes a small increase in volume, or the amount of space occupied by most materials. There are devices that use the expansion of a substance to indirectly measure temperature. Such devices are calledThermometer.

How does a thermometer measure temperature?

Thermometers are the most common instrument for measuring temperature. The simplest thermometer is the liquid thermometer. They are a thin glass tube filled with a small amount of mercury. Thermometers measure temperature based on thermal expansion. An increase in the volume of the substance due to the increase in temperature is denoted asthermal expansion. A small change in temperature causes a change in volume of a liquid. However, this form of effect is maximized when the liquid expands inside the thin tube of the thermometer. As mercury gets hotter, it increases in size by an amount directly related to temperature. So if the temperature rises 20 degrees, the mercury expands and moves up the scale twice as much as if the temperature rise is just 10 degrees.

Creating a Celsius scale is easier because it is based on the temperatures of ice and boiling water. Those are the two fixed points. If we immerse the thermometer in ice, we observe that the mercury level marks the lowest point on our scale, i. H. 0°C The mercury rises to the top of the thermometer and reads 100°C when we immerse it in boiling water. The scale of a thermometer is divided into 100 evenly spaced intervals between 0°C and 100°C.

What is the temperature sensor?

A temperature sensor is an RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) or thermocouple that collects data about the temperature from a specific source and converts the data into an understandable form for a device or observer. Temperature sensors are used in many applications such asfood processing unitsandmedical equipment. The most common type of temperature sensor is the thermometer, which measures the temperature of solids, liquids, and gases. It's also a common type of temperature sensor, mostly used for non-scientific purposes as it's not that accurate. The following are a couple of temperature sensors next to the thermometer.

  • Thermoelemente
  • RTD
  • thermistors
  • infrared sensors
  • semiconductor

The temperature scale

Thermometers measure the temperature according to precisely defined measurement scales. The three most common temperature scales are the Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin scales.

Celsius Scale & Fahrenheit Scale

The Celsius scale has a freezing point of water at 0°C and a boiling point of water at 100°C. On the Fahrenheit scale, water's freezing point is 32ºF and its boiling point is 212ºF. A temperature difference of one degree Celsius is greater than a temperature difference of one degree Fahrenheit. A degree on the Celsius scale is 1.8 times larger than a degree on the Fahrenheit scale.

  • 180/100 = 9/5


The Kelvin scale is the most commonly used temperature scale in science. It is an absolute temperature scale, defined as having 0K at the lowest possible temperature, known as absolute zero. The freezing and boiling points of water on this scale are 273.15 K and 373.15 K, respectively. Unlike other temperature scales, the Kelvin scale is an absolute scale. It is often used in academic papers. The Kelvin temperature scale has true zero with no negative temperatures. It is the lowest theoretically attainable temperature and the temperature at which the particles in a perfect crystal would become motionless.

Relationship between different temperature scales

The relationship between the three temperature scales is given in the table below:

Celsius to Fahrenheit

\(\begin{array}{l}T_{F^o} = \frac{9}{5}T_{c^o}+32\end{array} \)

Fahrenheit to Celsius

\(\begin{array}{l}T_{C} = \frac{5}{9}T_{F}-32\end{array} \)

Celsius to Kelvin

\(\begin{array}{l}T_{K} = T_{C^o}+273,15\end{array} \)

Kelvins to Celsius

\(\begin{array}{l}T_{C^o} = T_{K}-273,15\end{array} \)

Fahrenheit to Kelvin

\(\begin{array}{l}T_{K} = \frac{5}{9}(T(F^0)-32)+273,15\end{array} \)

Kelvin to Fahrenheit

\(\begin{array}{l}T_{F^0} = \frac{9}{5}(T(K)-273,15)+32\end{array} \)

(Video) Heat and Temperature

Example 1: Conversion of different temperature scales
The room temperature is generally defined as 25 °C. What is the room temperature in ºF? What is the room temperature in K?

Solution for 1:To convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit,

We use the equation:

\(\begin{array}{l}T_{F^o} = \frac{9}{5}T_{c^o}+32\end{array} \)

Substituting the values ​​into the equation, we get

\(\begin{array}{l}T_{F^o} = \frac{9}{5}T_{25^o \,C}+32=77^0\,F\end{array} \)

Solution for 2:To convert from Celsius to Kelvin,

We use the equation:

\(\begin{array}{l}T_{K} = T_{C^o}+273,15\end{array} \)

Substituting the values ​​into the equation, we get

\(\begin{array}{l}T_{K} = T_{25^o\,C}+273.15=298\,K\end{array} \)

thermal equilibrium

Did you know that thermometers measure their own temperature and not the temperature of the object they are measuring?

Thermometers operate on the fact that any two systems placed in thermal contact (which means heat transfer can occur between them) will reach the same temperature. Heat flows from the hotter object to the cooler object until they reach the same temperature. The objects are then in thermal equilibrium and no further changes occur. Systems interact and change because of temperature differences, and these changes stop once their temperatures are equal. Thermal equilibrium occurs when two bodies are in contact and can freely exchange energy.

Effects of temperature:

A rise or fall in temperature causes various changes in the physical and chemical processes of life. Some of these are given below-

  • It affects the solubility, density, vapor pressure and physical properties of various materials, as well as electrical conductivity
  • The rate of a chemical reaction is also affected by temperature.
  • Thermal radiation from the surface of objects is also affected by temperature.

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Frequently Asked Questions – Frequently Asked Questions

Do substances expand or contract when they get hotter?

Substances expand as the temperature rises. Heat makes the molecules and atoms of a body vibrate faster. The faster the atoms vibrate, the greater the distance between the atoms. The movement and spacing of the particles determine the physical state of the substance. The end result of the increased molecular motion is that the object expands and takes up more space.

(Video) temperature vs heat explained

Which state of matter has the highest temperature?

Gas has the highest temperature.

Which temperature scale is the most common in the world?

Celsius is the most common temperature scale in the world.

What is the coldest temperature possible?

Absolute zero is the coldest possible temperature.

What temperature scale is most commonly used by scientists?

Kelvin is the temperature scale most commonly used by scientists.

Temperature - Detailed explanation, Heat vs Temperature, FAQs (1)

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(Video) Thermodynamics: Temperature, Energy and Heat, An Explanation


What is the main difference between heat and temperature is that temperature? ›

The core difference is that heat deals with thermal energy, whereas temperature is more concerned with molecular kinetic energy. Heat is the transfer of thermal energy, whereas temperature is a property the object exhibits.

What is the relationship between heat and temperature explain? ›

Heat is the total energy of the motion of the molecules of a substance, whereas temperature refers to the measure of the average energy of the motions of the molecules in the substance. The heat is dependent on factors like the speed of the particles, the size of the particles and the number of particles, etc.

What are 5 differences between heat and temperature? ›

The Difference Between Heat and Temperature

Coldness or hotness of an object is measured by Temperature. The SI unit of heat is Joules. The SI unit of temperature is Kelvin. The amount of heat energy contained in an object depends on its mass, temperature, and material, which is the specific heat capacity.

What is the importance of having differences between heat and temperature? ›

Heat is nothing but the amount of energy in a body. As against this, temperature is something that measures the intensity of heat. Heat measures both kinetic and potential energy contained by molecules in an object. On the other hand, temperature measures average kinetic energy of molecules in substance.

What is the example of difference between the heat and temperature? ›

For example, the temperature of a small cup of water is the same as the temperature of a tub of water, But the tub of water has more heat because it has more water and thus more total thermal energy. S.I unit of heat is Joule. S.I unit of Temperature is Kelvin.

What is the relationship between temperature difference and heat flow? ›

So the greater the temperature difference between an object and its surroundings (air for example), the greater the rate at which heat energy is transferred. This means that if you have two objects with a large temperature difference, then a large amount of heat energy will flow from the hotter to the cooler.

Can you add heat without raising temperature to? ›

Adding heat, however, does not always increase the temperature. For instance, when water is boiling, adding heat does not increase its temperature. This happens at the boiling temperature of every substance that can vaporize.

Does temperature depend on the amount of heat? ›

The rise in temperature of a substance depends upon the quantity of heat supplied, nature and mass of the substance.

How is heat and temperature affects the energy? ›

When a system absorbs or loses heat, the average kinetic energy of the molecules will change. Thus, heat transfer results in a change in the system's temperature as long as the system is not undergoing a phase change.

On what factors does heat depend? ›

Experiments show that the heat transferred to or from a substance depends on three factors—the change in the substance's temperature, the mass of the substance, and certain physical properties related to the phase of the substance.

What are the 3 types of temperature? ›

Celsius, Fahrenheit and Kelvin are the three common temperature scales.

Is the unit of heat and temperature the same? ›

The unit of Heat is Joule. However, the temperature is the measure of the hotness and coldness of an object. The SI unit of Temperature is Kelvin.

Does higher temperature mean more heat? ›

The macroscopic feature of objects with a higher heat is a higher temperature . Hotter objects have a higher average kinetic energy and a higher temperature; cooler objects have a lower average kinetic energy and a lower temperature.

In which direction does heat always flow? ›

Heat energy always flows from the warmer object to the cooler object.

Are heat and temperature the same terms or have the same meaning? ›

Heat and temperature are not the same thing. Heat energy is the total kinetic energy of the atoms of a substance. Temperature is the average kinetic energy of the atoms of a substance.

How does heat affect the state of matter? ›

When thermal energy is added to a substance, its temperature increases, which can change its state from solid to liquid (melting), liquid to gas (vaporization), or solid to gas (sublimation).

What is a real life example to explain heat? ›

In simplest terms, temperature is how hot or cold an object is, while heat is the energy that flows from a hotter object to a cooler one. For example, the temperature of a cup of coffee may feel hot if you put your hand around it. It is hot because heat from the coffee is transferred to the cup.

What are the application of heat and temperature in daily life? ›

Heat is used to make things warm, to boil water and fry eggs and to melt metal to build cars. Heat is used to generate electricity at a thermal power plant for our daily lives. Temperature is the measure of how hot or cold matter is.

What is the three difference between heat and temperature? ›

Difference between heat and temperature.
Its S.I. unit is joule (J).Its S.I. unit is kelvin (K).
It is measured by the principle of calorimetry.It is measured by a thermometer.
1 more row

What are the 5 types of temperature? ›

The Four Types of Temperature Scales
  • Fahrenheit Scale. ••• The Fahrenheit scale of temperature is the common form of temperature measurement used in the United States and some parts of the Caribbean. ...
  • Celsius Scale. ••• ...
  • Kelvin Scale. ••• ...
  • Rankine Scale. •••
Apr 26, 2018

What is the difference between heat and temperature quizlet? ›

What is the difference between heat and temperature? Temperature is the average energy of the matter, heat is the transfer of thermal energy from one place to another.

What is the difference between heat and temperature Brainpop answers? ›

What is the difference between heat and temperature? Temperature measures the motion of molecules, and heat is the energy of motion.

What are the 3 laws of heat? ›

1st Law of Thermodynamics - Energy cannot be created or destroyed. 2nd Law of Thermodynamics - For a spontaneous process, the entropy of the universe increases. 3rd Law of Thermodynamics - A perfect crystal at zero Kelvin has zero entropy.

Does heat move in three different ways? ›

There are three ways heat is transferred into and through the atmosphere: radiation. conduction. convection.

Why are there 3 different ways to measure temperature? ›

The Kelvin and Rankine scales are only used for scientific reasons, whereby Kelvin is by far the most used scale and Rankine is only used in a few specific fields of engineering, like thermal power plants. So, this leaves us with only 3 different scales which are Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin.

What are the 4 main factors that affect temperature? ›

The main factors influencing temperature include latitude, altitude, distance from oceans and lakes, and ocean currents. First, Earth's surface is divided into three temperature zones based on latitude. The tropical zone is near the equator and has a warm climate since it receives direct sunlight all year.

What are the two main types of temperature? ›

The two most common temperature scales are the Fahrenheit and Celsius (Centigrade) scales.

Which device is used to measure temperature? ›

Thermometer is a device that is used to measure temperature.


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