Introducing the Strawberry Plant Page
Would you like to learn more about the strawberry plant? If you are looking for knowledge or information about the strawberry fruit or strawberry plant, you have landed in the right place! This page (Strawberry Plants .org) will provide as much information as possible to help you understand the intricacies of strawberry plants.
Here we are passionate about everything related to the strawberry plant. We hope that passion shines through. We are pleased that you have found us and hope to be able to fulfill your need for information. We want more people to gain respect and interest in strawberry plants. If you have a question about the strawberry plant or the delicious fruit they produce, feel free to ask!
- Introducing the Strawberry Plant Page
- This is how the strawberry plant page works
- Scientific classification of the strawberry plant
- The anatomy of a strawberry plant
- A Brief History of the Strawberry Plant
- Etymology of the strawberry plant
- Strawberry Plant Diseases
- Strawberry Plant Pests
- The nutritional value of strawberries
- strawberry allergy
- Strawberry Botany and Trivia
- The strawberry plant: conclusion
This is how the strawberry plant page works
This Strawberry Plant main page serves as a hub for everything to do with the Strawberry Plant itself. It covers the basic information needed to get you started with the strawberry plant. The top of the page explains the basics of strawberries and the plants that produce them, and the bottom is a directory of links to pages with more detailed or complex information about strawberry plants.
On this page you will find basic information about the scientific classification of strawberries, strawberry plant anatomy, strawberry plant history, strawberry plant diseases and pests, strawberry nutritional value and more! If the following sections do not provide answers to your strawberry planting questions, there is a good chance the linked pages will provide the information you are looking for.
There is a wealth of information about strawberry plants here, and much more to come. As such, the links below will be updated regularly with new information. We'll stop updating when there's nothing more to write about the strawberry plant! If you have a specific question about strawberry plants, you can use the comments or the form on the here tooOnepage to ask.
Scientific classification of the strawberry plant
The strawberry plant is actually a relative of the rose and comes from the rose family. The genus of strawberry plants isFragaria, and there are over twenty species. In addition, there are numerous hybrid strawberries and many cultivars.
The most commonly grown strawberry plant species isFragaria x Ananas, or the garden strawberry. Virtually all commercial strawberry growers use one of the varieties of the garden strawberry on their farms. However, there are many other strawberry plant species that are grown in home gardens around the world.
Scientific Classification: Strawberry Plant
|Underdark:||Tracheobionta (vascular plants)|
|Division:||Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)|
|Species:||over 20 different types|
When distinguishing and classifying the numerous strawberry plant species, the number of chromosomes in the plant is crucial. All strawberry plants share seven common types of chromosomes. In order to distinguish between species, the number of pairs of these chromosomes must be determined. Some strawberry plant species are diploid, meaning they have two sets of the seven chromosomes (14 in total). Others are tetraploid (4 pairs, 28 total), hexaploid (6 pairs, 42 total), octaploid (8 pairs, 56 total), or decaploid (10 pairs, 70 total).
In general, the strawberry plant species with higher chromosome counts are more robust, grow taller as plants, and produce larger strawberries. However, there are exceptions. For more information on the different varieties and types of strawberry plants, seestrawberry varietiesbook page.
Strawberry plants are genetically robust and can adapt to different climates. They are easy to find practically everywhere except in Africa, New Zealand and Australia where there are no native forms.
What Kind of Plants Are Strawberry Plants?
Strawberry plants are classified as herb or herbaceous. Perennial/herb plants are those that do not have appreciable amounts of woody tissue above the ground, but are nonetheless vascular. Their lack of woody tissue means they are relatively short (their stems do not thicken and stiffen to support tall growth like non-perennial/herb plants do).
Also, the presence of enduring buds on strawberry plants causes them to fall into this category of plants. These persistent buds allow the strawberry plants to survive the winter and produce strawberry flowers again in the spring. More specifically, perennial buds are those formed before unfavorable conditions (e.g. winter) and then die off when the cold hits. Buds are supported during hibernation and spring back to life in spring. They are supported and shaped in the crown of the strawberry plant.
The anatomy of a strawberry plant
As with any biological organism, the anatomy of a strawberry plant can be quite complex, depending on how deep you delve into the microscopic world. A basic overview is given for this page.
There are five basic anatomical structures that make up the essence of a strawberry plant. They are the leaf, the root system, the crown, the stolon (more commonly referred to as the "runner") and the daughter strawberry plant. See the annotated strawberry plant image below:
The leaves and roots of a strawberry plant photosynthesize, or absorb water and nutrients from the soil, to facilitate growth and reproduction. Since the top three inches of soil contains about 70% of a strawberry plant's roots, they are particularly susceptible to drought. If you plan to grow strawberry plants, you will gain success by learning from themcultivation of strawberriesbook page.
The productive engine of a strawberry plant is in the crown. Strawberry plants from this region produce both stolons (stolons) and flowering fruit stalks that eventually yield strawberries. Curbing a plant's growth energy by cutting off stolons and early flower buds can result in crown propagation, which often results in more and higher-quality fruit per plant in subsequent years.
The daughter plants are nurtured by the stolons until their root bud makes contact with soil and establishes a self-contained root system. At this point, the stolon dries, shrinks, and eventually separates completely, leaving a new and independent clone of strawberry plants.
A Brief History of the Strawberry Plant
For a brief history of the strawberry plant, this is the easiest place to startFragaria vesca. This species of strawberry plant is native throughout the northern hemisphere and goes by many different names. The different names forFragaria vescaThese include: the wild strawberry, wild strawberry, wild strawberry, European strawberry, Fraises des Bois and alpine strawberry (more specifically, alpine strawberry is generally understood as a cultivated everbearing plant).
Genetically an ancestor ofFragaria vescaspecies (which is diploid) probably formed a hybrid strawberry plant with an ancestor of theFragaria iinumae(which is also diploid) to eventually produce the octoploid strawberry plants. The exact hybridization and speciation process that led to the formation of an octoploid strawberry plant is currently unknown. However, bothFragaria VirginianaAndFragaria chiloensis(both octoploid) appear to be genetically identical and consequently all cultivated varieties of garden strawberries also carry the same genetic complement.
Fragaria vescaStrawberries have been consumed by humans for a long time. Archaeological evidence points to human consumption dating back to the Stone Age. The first cultivated strawberries were grown in ancient Persia. The fruit of these strawberry plants cultivated in Persia was called toot farangi. The seeds of this strawberry plant traveled both east and west along the Silk Road and were widely cultivated from Europe to the Far East.
The first documented botanical illustration of a strawberry plant is thought to date from 1454. A depiction in Herbaries was included as a figure.
In addition, even before the arrival of European colonists, American Indians were consuming native strawberries and using them for culinary purposes. Strawberry Shortcake is believed to have been developed by the colonists by modifying an Indian recipe that made "strawberry bread" by mixing and then baking mashed strawberries with cornmeal.
Until the 18th centuryFragaria vescabegan to be replaced byFragariaXat pineapple, the garden strawberry. This transition occurred because of the desirable traits exhibited by the newly bred strawberry plant: larger fruit and greater variation (easier to grow). The first strawberry hybrid, "Hudson", was developed later (1780) in the United States.
This new strawberry plant (the garden strawberry) was bred in Brittany, France, in 1740 from a North American strawberry plant and a South American strawberry plant. The colonists had shipped North American strawberry plants back to Europe as early as the 1600s, and the conquistadors had identified another variety of strawberry plant, which they named "Futilla." TheFragaria VirginianaThe plant was known for its pleasant taste and originated in the eastern region of what later became the United States of America. TheFragaria chiloensiswas known for its size and was brought from the regions of Argentina and Chile by Amédée-François Frézier. The breeding was a success as the garden strawberry plant has now become the strawberry plant of choice for most commercial and residential strawberry growers.
In the early 19th century, cultivation of strawberry plants in the United States increased dramatically when ice cream with strawberries became a popular dessert. New York was then becoming a strawberry center. Railroads and refrigerator cars allowed strawberry production to spread, particularly in Tennessee, Arkansas, Florida, and Louisiana.
Currently, the vast majority of North American strawberries are grown in California (about 75%).
Strawberry plant selection and breeding has created varieties that have dramatically increased the size of strawberries. The early strawberry plants had very small fruits. Now many strawberry plants produce berries that require multiple bites!
With the advent of genomics and gene mapping, the alpine strawberry plant has now become the focus of strawberry plant research. Because it is easy to propagate, has a reproductive cycle of 14-15 weeks in a controlled environment and has a very small genome size, this strawberry plant has been adopted as a genetic model for the garden strawberry in particular and the rose family in general. It is used as an indicator plant for disease research.
Etymology of the strawberry plant
There is some disagreement as to how the strawberry plant got its name. It is generally accepted that the English word "strawberry" comes from the Old English "streawberige" or the Anglo-Saxon "streoberie" (sometimes spelled "stroeberrie"). Regardless, it was not written in the modern spelling until around 1538. It is likely that straw, which was traditionally used as mulch to keep weeds and berries clean, gave rise to the name. However, some argue that the strawberry plant runner's straw-like appearance led to its current English name.
The generic name under which the strawberry fallsFragaria, derives from the Latin word for strawberry "fraga". And "fraga" itself is a derivative of "fragum" which means "fragrant" and characterizes exactly the olfactory sensation that distinguishes freshly picked strawberry fruit!
Strawberry Plant Diseases
There are a few diseases that affect strawberry plants. The leaves, roots, and fruit of the strawberry plant are all susceptible to a variety of diseases, depending on the hardiness of the strawberry plant variety under consideration. This is a summary of the most common strawberry plant diseases:
Red stele root rot
The roots of a strawberry plant are damaged by red stele root rot (also known as Lanarkshire disease). The disease is caused by a soil-dwelling fungus and its occurrence is confirmed in a strawberry plant that has a red root core. The fungus is particularly prevalent in the northern two-thirds of the United States. Heavy clay soils with poor drainage that remain saturated with water in cool weather are most at risk. The fungus that causes red stele root rot isPhytophthora fragariae, and once established they can remain alive for at least thirteen years (perhaps longer) regardless of crop rotation.
leaf spot of strawberry plant
Leaf spot is caused by the fungusMycosphaerella fragariaeand manifests as dark purple to reddish-purple spots on several parts of the strawberry plant. The round spots are usually between 1/8 and 1/4 inch in diameter and are most easily seen on the leaves of an infected strawberry plant. However, petioles, stolons, fruit stalks (stalks) and strawberry caps (calyxes) as well as ripe strawberries can also be infected. Eventually the center of the spots becomes almost white with intermediate shades of brown or gray. The parts of the strawberry plant affected by this disease are the young, succulent ones.
Leaf rot of the strawberry plant
The mushroomDendrophoma obscurans(also known asPhomopsis obscurans) causes leaf rot and usually does its damage after harvest. One to six enlarging, elliptical or angular spots, up to 2.5 cm across, develop on the leaflets. The spots begin with a reddish-purple color. As they get larger, they develop a dark brown center surrounded by a light brown area with a purple border. This fungus affects weaker, slow-growing plants almost exclusively and mostly ignores juvenile runner plants.Dendrophoma obscuranscan also cause a spreading, pink, soft rot on the stem end of a strawberry.
Strawberry plant leaf scorched
Leaf scorch is caused by the fungusDiplocarpon earliana, which attacks the leaves, calyx, petioles, stolons and stems of the strawberry plant. At the initial stage, it looks like a leaf spot. Later, the lesions develop black spots as the fungal fruiting bodies are produced, but unlike leaf spots, the centers of the lesions remain dark purple. Strawberry plant leaves with a severe infection will shrivel and look burned. Rarely, the fungus infects green strawberries, revealing reddish-brown spots or spots on the unripe fruit.
Strawberry gray mold
When a strawberry plant is attacked by gray mold, fruit production is likely to be particularly disrupted (expect 80-90% loss of both flowers and strawberries). It is caused by the fungusBotrytis cinerea, and wreaks havoc during rainy and cloudy periods just before or during harvest. Strawberries that touch soil, other infected or rotting strawberries, or dead leaves in dense foliage are most commonly affected. The fungus causes infections that appear as soft, fast-growing, light-brown spots. The fruit dries up, darkens, and becomes covered with a dusty, powdery coating of fungal spores, giving it a gray appearance.
Foliage variation of the strawberry plant
Leaf spot is a mysterious disease and its cause is currently unknown. It has many other names as well, including: June yellow, spring yellow, chlorosis, Blakemore yellow, and non-infectious variegated. The disease usually (but not exclusively) occurs in strawberry plants that have Howard 17 (Premier), Blakemore, or Auchincruive Climax cultivars in their plant ancestors. The disease affects only flowers and leaves and manifests itself on new leaflets in spring as yellow or white streaks or spots and leaflet rippling. While onset is unpredictable, the strawberry plant will show progressively worse symptoms until it dies two to three years later, a stunted and unproductive shell of its former self.
Verticillium wilt of strawberry plant
Verticillium wilt is caused by a very common soil fungus called VerticilliumWhite-black swirl. In new strawberry plantings, symptoms usually appear as new stolons are produced. Older plantations are usually affected shortly before harvest. Affected strawberry plants show different symptoms depending on the variety, and affected plants need to be tested for a definitive diagnosis. Symptoms are not easily distinguished from other strawberry plant root diseases or winter damage. Once established, the fungus will likely survive for 25 years or more.
Leather rot (crown rot) of strawberries
Leather rot (also called crown rot) is caused by the fungusPhytophthora cactorumand infests strawberries in poorly drained soil where standing water is or has been present. Most commonly, the fungus causes brown spots or brown outlines on green strawberries. The infected strawberries have an unpleasant odor and bitter taste. Ripe strawberries that are infected can look perfectly normal and taste terrible. Excessive rains in May, June and July often create the optimal conditions for this fungal infection.
learn more aboutStrawberry plant diseases and problems caused by bacteria, fungi, mold and viruses.
Strawberry Plant Pests
In addition to the strawberry plant diseases mentioned above, there are also numerous strawberry plant pests that can damage or kill your strawberry plants. Here is a summary of the most common strawberry plant pests:
strawberry crown borer(Tyloderma fragariae)
These strawberry plant pests are about 1/5 inch long and have three spots on their elytra. They are flightless weevils that feed on strawberry plant canopies to open holes in which they then lay their eggs until mid-June. The hatched larvae bore into the crowns and damage the growing strawberry plant. The larvae form a pupa and subsequently become a weevil that feeds on the leaves of the plant.
Strawberry Root Beetle(Otiorhynchus ovatus)
Weevils are about 1/3 inch long and have elytra characterized by many rows of small pits. Adult weevils lay eggs in the ground. Hatched larvae burrow through the ground and feed on the roots and crown of a nearby strawberry plant causing damage or death. The adult weevils feed on the leaves.
White grubs range in size from 1/2 to 1 inch and eventually become the large may or june bugs (also called "june beetles") that are common in many parts of the United States. The grubs burrow into the ground and hibernate twice before assuming beetle form. Consequently, the grubs can damage the roots of strawberry plants during feeding for several years.
Strawberry Rootworm(A few crashes)
Adult beetles are shiny, oval, dark brown to black, about 1/3 inch long, and display four spots on their elytra. Adults feed on the leaves until early fall and may cover the foliage of the strawberry plant with holes. The larvae burrow into the soil and feed on the roots.
Strawberry root aphid(Aphis forbesi)
Also known as the strawberry root aphid, this small strawberry plant pest is about 1mm long, has an oval and dark bluish-green body and a yellowish head. They feed on the roots and crowns of strawberry plants and can be very numerous when infested.
strawberry leaf moth(Ancylis comptana fragriae)
The adult moths hatch in April or May to lay their eggs on the strawberry plant, usually on the underside of the leaves. The translucent eggs then hatch and the larvae feed on the epidermis of the leaves, secreting silk threads while binding the leaflets together. Other species of leaf rollers also feed on the strawberry plant, but none of them usually cause significant damage to the entire strawberry plantation.
strawberry mites(Tetranychus urticaeAndSteneotarsonemus pallidus)
The two-spotted spider mite and cyclamen mite can devastate strawberry plants. The spider mites damage leaf surfaces to feed on sap, while the cyclamen mites feed on new, developing leaves and flowers. Both lead to leaf death and fall, and the cyclamen mite causes distorted fruit.
strawberry scissors(Signed Anton)
Also known as the strawberry beetle, these pests are about 1/10 inch long, dark reddish brown, and have a long and slender curved snout. The adults feed on pollen in the nearly mature flower and subsequently lay an egg in the flower. They then gird the bud to prevent it from opening and cut the stalk so that it hangs or falls to the ground.
Clouded plant bug(A linear bundle)
Also known as Lygus beetles, these strawberry plant pests are about 1/4 inch long and are distinguished by a yellow "V" marking on their back just behind the head. In spring, they feed on strawberry plant blossoms, resulting in disfigured and gnarled strawberries.
Slugs eat deep holes in strawberries and leave slime trails over the strawberry plant. The damaged strawberries quickly begin to rot. Slugs can do a lot of damage to a strawberry crop.
Birds will find a way to rob at least some of your strawberries from your strawberry plants before you can pick them. To minimize loss, plant more strawberry plants than you need and cover the area with bird netting to keep thieves out as much as possible.
learn more aboutKeep birds, bugs and other pests away from your strawberries.
The nutritional value of strawberries
The fruit of the strawberry plant is packed with beneficial nutrients, particularly vitamin C and flavonoids. A cup of strawberries weighs approximately 144 grams and contains between 45 and 50 calories. Strawberries are over 90% water, 7% carbohydrates, about 2% fiber, and less than 1% each of protein, fat, and ash.
Strawberries are also a dietary source of minerals and vitamins. The following minerals are found in decreasing amounts in strawberries: potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, and selenium. Strawberries are also a good source of the following vitamins: vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin A and vitamin E. Strawberries also contain 18 different amino acids.
Basically, unless you have a strawberry allergy, you can't go wrong with eating fresh, clean strawberries. They're pretty good for you!
Some individuals are allergic to strawberries when consuming them. The most common of these is oral allergy syndrome. However, allergic symptoms similar to those of hay fever also occur. Skin problems such as dermatitis or hives can also occur, and in severe cases, breathing problems can develop.
The specific allergen responsible for triggering the reaction is thought to be attached to a protein called Fragaria allergen 1, or Fra a1 for short. This protein is believed to be involved in the berry ripening process. Consequently, strawberry plant varieties that produce white, pale, or yellow "golden" fruit due to their lack of Fra a1 may potentially be consumed by individuals who are normally allergic to strawberries. The Sofar variety is considered to be practically allergen-free. For more details seestrawberry allergybook page.
Strawberry Botany and Trivia
The fruit of the strawberry plant has been around for a very, very long time. As delicious as it is, it's no surprise that it's had an impact on various cultures and has been incorporated into literature over the centuries. These strawberry plant facts may satisfy those curious about strawberry science.
In Roman times, the strawberry was a symbol of the goddess of beauty, love and fertility, probably due to its red color and heart shape. In fact, legend still holds that breaking a "double" strawberry in half and then consuming it with a member of the opposite sex causes the couple to fall in love.
Medieval stonemasons used depictions of strawberries etched or carved on altars, in churches, and cathedrals to symbolize righteous perfection.
It is also reported that King Henry VIII's second wife had a birthmark in the shape of a strawberry on her neck. Supposedly, this birthmark cemented her status as a witch. Regardless, she died at the hands of the executioner in 1536.
Shakespeare also chose to use the strawberry as a symbolic decoration on Desdemonda's handkerchief in Othello.
The delicate fruit of the strawberry plant has always represented purity, passion and even healing. Herbal teas are made from the leaves, stems and flowers. The strawberries and other parts of the strawberry plant are believed to relieve or aid in the treatment of various diseases or ailments, including: diarrhea, gout, kidney stones, bad breath, throat infections, fever, inflammatory conditions, fainting, melancholy or depression, and disorders of the brain blood, spleen and liver.
late 18ththand early 19ththIn the 19th century, Madame Tallien, a social figure during the French Revolution, is said to have found a unique use for strawberries: bathing. The socialite and fashionista is said to have bathed in strawberry juice from over 20 pounds of strawberries for its healing properties.
In fact, strawberries still play ceremonial roles today. In parts of Bavaria, people still perform the annual rite of tying small baskets of wild strawberries to the horns of their cattle. They do this as an offering to elves. They believe that the elves crave the sweet berries and help the cattle produce plenty of milk and healthy calves.
The strawberry plant: conclusion
Many volumes of information and details could be written about the strawberry plant. Hope you found what you were looking for on this page. If not, please feel free to contact us or leave a comment about the information you are looking for.
And be sure to check back regularly for updated articles on the various aspects of the strawberry plant! New articles will be posted below with links.
Pollination of strawberries is not very difficult. However, strawberry pollination has some surprising benefits. Learn why and how strawberries are pollinated. The advantages are manifold!
Strawberry plants with yellow flowers
Do strawberry plants have yellow flowers? If you've found strawberries with yellow flowers... you haven't. Strawberry plants with yellow flowers are the wrong strawberry herb. Details are here.
Withering strawberry plants
Do you have wilted strawberry plants? Why do strawberry plants wilt? In this post, you'll learn what causes strawberries to wilt and why the top five causes of wilted strawberries are looked no further.
Nitrogen deficiency in strawberry plants
Do you have strawberry plants with yellow leaves? Nitrogen deficiency in strawberry plants often causes strawberries with yellow leaves. Learn how to fix nitrogen deficiency in strawberries.
Learn more about newborn strawberry plants here: planting strawberry seedling, handling strawberry seedling, hardening strawberry seedling and all about the strawberry seedling!
How many strawberries do strawberry plants produce?
Find out everything you need to know about the quantities of strawberries you can expect to harvest: by plant, by row foot or by hectare. Use this information to plan ahead for your needs!
Do you have a strawberry allergy? It's hard to be allergic to strawberries or have strawberry allergies. An allergy to strawberry proteins reduces enjoyment! Details on strawberry allergy can be found here.
Genetics of Strawberry Plants
Strawberry plant genetics and strawberry genetics are discussed here. Learn about strawberry plant genetics for different strawberry plant species.
Life cycle of strawberry plants
The life cycle of strawberry plants & the growth cycle of strawberry plants are unique. Learn more about the life cycle of the humble strawberry plant here.
compounds in strawberry plants
Use this database of compounds in strawberry plants to identify and target beneficial strawberry compounds. This can be of particular use to herbalists or other ethnobotanists.
Each strawberry blossom becomes a strawberry. Here we discuss where strawberry flowers come from, strawberry flower care and other information about strawberry flowers.
What are strawberry plant runners? (stolon)
What are strawberry runners? The details of the strawberry plant runners can be found here. Find out the advantages, disadvantages and usefulness of suckers on a strawberry plant.
Avoiding birds, bugs and other pests
In this article, we'll give you some simple suggestions on how to let our animal friends find other food sources and keep your strawberries yourself.
Strawberry Plant Diseases
Strawberry diseases can affect the fruit, flowers, leaves, roots, and crown of strawberry plants, sometimes leading to the collapse of the entire plant. Learn more about bacteria, fungi, mold and viruses.
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